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  1. #1
    Val
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    Cool Education relating to AGW

    Here's a book to start;
    Book Description
    Publication Date: December 12, 2011
    With its soaring azure sky and stark landscapes, the American Southwest is one of the most hauntingly beautiful regions on earth. Yet staggering population growth, combined with the intensifying effects of climate change, is driving the oasis-based society close to the brink of a Dust-Bowl-scale catastrophe.

    In A Great Aridness, William deBuys paints a compelling picture of what the Southwest might look like when the heat turns up and the water runs out. This semi-arid land, vulnerable to water shortages, rising temperatures, wildfires, and a host of other environmental challenges, is poised to bear the heaviest consequences of global environmental change in the United States. Examining interrelated factors such as vanishing wildlife, forest die backs, and the over-allocation of the already stressed Colorado River--upon which nearly 30 million people depend--the author narrates the landscape's history--and future. He tells the inspiring stories of the climatologists and others who are helping untangle the complex, interlocking causes and effects of global warming. And while the fate of this region may seem at first blush to be of merely local interest, what happens in the Southwest, deBuys suggests, will provide a glimpse of what other mid-latitude arid lands worldwide--the Mediterranean Basin, southern Africa, and the Middle East--will experience in the coming years.

    Written with an elegance that recalls the prose of John McPhee and Wallace Stegner, A Great Aridness offers an unflinching look at the dramatic effects of climate change occurring right now in our own backyard.
    >>>Don't forget the Ogallala Aquifer running dry by 2040 or before, too!!!!<<<

  2. #2
    Val
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    By Devin Powell

    February 11th, 2012; Vol.181 #3 (p. 5)

    Text Size




    Enlarge
    GAS STATIONThe Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia has erected towers in the Brazilian rain forest up to 65 meters high to measure carbon dioxide absorption and emissions.Scott Saleska
    In the struggle against global warming, the Amazon rain forest may be about to switch sides.

    Its dense vegetation has long helped cool the planet by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But mass tree deaths brought about by recent droughts and deforestation may be pushing the region to a point at which it will give off more of the greenhouse gas than it absorbs.

    “The Amazon might still be a sink for carbon, but if it is it’s definitely moving towards being a source,” says Eric Davidson, director of the Woods Hole Research Center in Falmouth, Mass. Reporting in the Jan. 19 Nature, Davidson and 14 other researchers from the United States and Brazil weigh evidence that the world’s largest rain forest has become increasingly vulnerable to change.

    Thanks to regular measurements of 100,000 trees, scientists estimate that the Amazon was sucking up about 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually at the turn of the century. Plants absorb the gas during photosynthesis, storing the carbon component as leaves, wood and roots and injecting it into the soil. The entire rain forest is thought to contain about 100 billion tons of carbon, equivalent to 10 years of global CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels.

    It’s clear that much of this carbon is now being released at the Amazon’s southern and eastern edges, says Davidson, in places where forests have been cleared by loggers or burned to make room for cattle and crops.

    Not only do these bald patches store little carbon, they also threaten remaining trees by reducing the amount of moisture that is released into the air and by pulling rain away from the surrounding forest.

    Dry seasons in the southern and eastern fringes of the Amazon have gotten longer. And when the rains do come, precipitation that would have been captured by forest runs off into rivers instead. A 2003 study in the Journal of Hydrology found that water flowing through Tocantins River in southeastern Amazonia increased by nearly 25 percent as croplands spread to encompass almost half of the land draining into the river.

    For now, the impact of this deforestation will probably remain confined to parts of the Amazon. One computer simulation suggested that a surge in deforestation that cleared 40 percent of the Amazon basin could trigger a tipping point, a runaway conversion of forest to savanna. But Davidson’s team argues that the uncertainties are too great to make such a prediction.

    Climate change, rather than direct deforestation, may ultimately be the factor that threatens the Amazon as a whole. Rising global temperatures are predicted to warm waters in the Atlantic Ocean and stimulate the El Niño weather patterns that influence how much rain falls on the Amazon, making droughts more frequent and more severe.

    “Our work suggests that as the planet gets warmer, places like the Amazon are probably going to lose carbon,” says Kevin Gurney, an atmospheric scientist at Arizona State University in Tempe.

    Trees in the Amazon’s interior are naturally resilient against drought. Their roots reach far below the surface, tapping deep water sources that provide sustenance during lean times.

    But even deep-drinking trees have their limits. In a study reported in 2010 in New Phytologist, scientists channeled away up to half of the rain falling on small plots of land in eastern Amazonia for seven years. By the third year, tree growth had slowed substantially and tree death had nearly doubled.

    A severe dry spell in 2005 pushed many trees beyond what they could handle even faster. Rainfall decreased over a third of the Amazon, by as much as 75 percent in some places. At the time, scientists estimated that the forest released more than 1.5 billion tons of carbon as trees died off, and labeled the devastation a once-in-a-century event.

    Then an even worse drought hit in 2010, when an even larger area lost even more carbon. An analysis of satellite images reported last April in Geophysical Research Letters showed the forest turning brown.

    “We’ve seen two climatologically unusual droughts in the last few years,” says Oliver Phillips, a tropical ecologist at the University of Leeds in England.

    >>>The O2 level depends almost 40% on the Amazon, much of the rest from plankton also threatened. With continued fossil fuel burning, slash and burn, and rainforest logging, global warming will get worse, the Amazon could partially, maybe a majority, die off from drought, and the O2 percentage in the atmosphere go down several percent to the equivalent of higher altitude. The Sixth Extinction continues.<<<

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    Val, this is depressing news because I don't see how the biosphere can survive without the Amazon rainforest. We live in the Northern Hemisphere but we've been having spring-like weather through most of the winter, especially this January, so I wonder about spring and summer?
    Last edited by nrdthxpr; 01-30-2012 at 02:42 PM.

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    Val
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    More info to give students:

    States, setting a mountain of new records

    By Janet Raloff

    Web edition : Tuesday, April 10th, 2012

    "People may argue about why Earth is warming, how long its fever will last and whether any of this warrants immediate corrective action. But whether Earth is warming is no longer open to debate. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has just published domestic examples to reinforce what Americans witnessed last month — either on TV or in their own backyards.

    Let's start with the heat: March 2012 temperatures averaged 10.6° Celsius (51° Fahrenheit) — or 5.5 °C warmer than the 20th century average across the contiguous United States. Throughout the more than 115 years that national U.S. weather data have been compiled, only one other month (January 2006) surpassed this past March in its departure from the average.

    In all, U.S. weather stations logged almost 15,300 all-time highs, last month, roughly half of them for nighttime temps. “There were 21 instances of the nighttime temperatures being as warm, or warmer, than the existing record daytime temperature for a given date,” NOAA’s new analysis finds. Only Alaska bucked the trend; its temperatures were the tenth coolest for March.

    Nor was last month the only anomalous period. The first three months of 2012 also set a record for toastiness across the contiguous United States, with an average temperature throughout the period of some 5.6 degrees above the long-term average. Sixteen states had temperatures ranking among their 10 warmest for the quarter. None of the contiguous states posted a quarterly composite for January through March that fell below its long-term average.

    In many regions, March weather anomalies sparked conversations. At the Society of Toxicology meeting in San Francisco, for instance, I ran into three researchers who remarked on needing sweaters. All said it was warmer at home than at the meeting — home being Michigan, Maine and Indiana. In the DC area, people ogled earlier-than-normal blooms in their yards and on century-old cherry trees lining the Tidal Basin.

    Nationally, the entire 2011-to-2012 cold season (October through March) proved especially mild. It was the second-warmest on record across the 48 states.

    Accompanying the heat came a diminished rainfall. Nationally, the 2012 precipitation average is somewhat more than 0.7 centimeters (0.29 inches) below average. As of last week, one-third of the lower 48 states were experiencing drought — up from 18.8 percent this time last year.

    The heat stirred up weather systems, driving plenty of big storms. March 2012 saw more than 220 tornadoes — or almost 2.8 times the long-term average for that month. One particularly severe spell on March 2-3 caused 40 deaths and racked up an estimated $1.5 billion in commercial and property losses.

    The “Climate Extremes Index” — a scale introduced 16 years ago — attempts to quantify trends in extreme weather by identifying the percent of the contiguous states that fall outside the norm of temperature, precipitation, severe drought and hurricanes (or tropical storms) making landfall. So far, the 2012 index rating is 39 percent, or about twice the expected value.

    Weather records are just one quantifiable measure of warming. Many others can be harder to eyeball. For instance, the annual mean sea surface temperature for last year was the 9th warmest for the period that started in 1880. (The 10 warmest years have all occurred since January 2000.)

    We reported a wealth of analyses last year pointing to the Arctic having evolved “to a new normal,” with warmer, drier weather. Last July, researchers announced that relatively deep coastal waters off Greenland are now expected to warm considerably faster than elsewhere by the year 2100, exaggerating the risk of ice sheet melting and global sea-level rise.

    Many people won't complain about a somewhat balmier winter or marginally early spring. But warming isn't a cold-weather phenomenon. It's a 24/7 event occurring year-round. And at least here in the nation's capital, an increase in the normal summer-long muggy heat is not something I can imagine anyone welcoming."
    http://blog.nwf.org/wp-content/blogs...comparison.png
    Last edited by Val; 06-03-2012 at 11:05 AM. Reason: adding zone maps for visual proof of rapid AGW

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    The Earth is a biosphere struggling to heal itself with ever more violent storms because our population, our economy and our mass of waste materials keeps on growing and growing. So the tornadoes, hurricanes, floods and droughts will get much worse. Our only real choice is to safely recycle 100% of all our garbage, sludge, junk, smoke and fumes, while we peacefully reduce our human population with family planning education so each woman has the legally protected right to decide if and when to concieve and birth her children. Very few want a large family, more want none at all, but the vast majority want only 1,2 or 3. Thus, by returning the Earth to its natural order, we can live in peace and balance for thousands of years. If not, the biosphere will collapse in toxic ecocide and life will go extinct, which includes all human beings.



    "but the vast majority want only 1,2 or 3." Unfortunately, to reduce population enough to mitigate a crash requires one or none!!! Val
    Last edited by Val; 11-03-2012 at 02:09 PM.

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    This is a great thread. More to add from personal and educational experience in life. The unfortunate fact is that only well above average IQ students do well with exponential type math introduction and biology/ecology. Those below around 110 IQ are increasingly harder to teach and get poor grades. Many barely pass, and to them the really short term future is far away. I have noticed in my years of teaching that the ones with the most kids are the dumbest, and have the dumbest kids with very few exceptions.
    It is my experience that the 1993 book "The Bell Curve" is very true. I will not mention the various Rs involved here on the below 110 IQ side, but if you combined them all together it would be a B color. If you did the same with the above 110 IQ kids it would be a W color, and too few of them!
    The worst live in trailers or shacks, and their parents tend to be poor because they are also dumb and/or lazy and less educated as a result.
    Last edited by Val; 10-10-2013 at 11:56 AM.

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    Val
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    This is one that I'm using for educating 9th graders;
    A rough guide to the components of Earth's Climate System
    and this one I will also put in;
    Ocean In Critical State from Cumulative Impacts

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    Climate Reality Project leadership training;
    Climate Reality




    Here is another site that can be used educationally;
    http://www.ecoearth.info/
    Last edited by Val; 12-14-2013 at 10:09 AM.

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    Another source of green education and many links;
    Earth Blog: ESSAY: Ecology Is the Meaning of Life
    Excerpt;
    "Nature is far, far more than pretty plants and animals. Ecosystems make Earth habitable, providing water, food, air, shelter, and more – everything that we need and desire to live well. In naturally evolved ecosystems, from genes to individual organisms and species, to ecosystems and everything else in between, each living being present fulfills a niche which sustains itself, its neighbors, and the whole. "

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    Val
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    Learn to teach others about AGW.
    Climate Reality
    This is what happened.

    " People from 53 countries came together for three days with leading grassroots organizers and scientists, entrepreneurs and communications specialists, and former U.S. Vice President and Climate Reality Chairman, Al Gore.
    We covered the climate crisis and its solutions, a sustainable future for Africa and the world, and practical ways to get involved.
    Over 700 new Climate Reality Leaders got to work.

    The training we just completed in South Africa is how we're building a social revolution for climate action.

    We do it by equipping our new Climate Reality Leaders with everything they need to be the best climate messengers in their community. By connecting them with each other to make our global network stronger. And by sharing the solutions available today to move towards a clean-energy future.

    These new leaders will bring the facts about the climate crisis into their communities. They'll engage the public in conversation about what we can do. They'll take action and inspire others to act too. They'll work together and amplify their collective impact, and they'll spread the message about the cost of carbon pollution"

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